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Captain Morgan's Cannons


River Systems Institute and CAS Research Faculty/Chief Underwater Archaeologist Fritz Hanselmann Co-Directs the Lost Ships of Henry Morgan Project

PANAMA CITY--In the shallow waters surrounding Lajas Reef at the mouth of the Chagres River in Panama, a team of archaeologists has recovered cannons from the site where the infamous privateer Captain Henry Morgan's ships wrecked in 1671 while carrying Morgan and his men to raid Panama City. Six iron cannons recovered from the reef are now undergoing study and preservation treatment by Panamanian researches in cooperation with a team that has been styding the Chagres River with the permission of Panama's Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INAC). Mr. Raul Castro Zachrisson, Secretary General of the Instituto Nacional de Cultura said, "Panama's National Institute of Culture (INAC) is committed to the preservation of our cultural heritage. We strive to maintain it in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. I am honored to be a part of this important historical find and look forward to a continuous working relationship with all the insitiutions and professionals involved in the conservation of our sub aquatic cultural and natural resources."

Since 2008, an underwater archaeology team led by archaeologistsJames Delgado, Frederick Hanselmann, and Dominique Rissolohas surveyed, mapped, and documented submerged sites, shipwrecks, and the 500-years of maritime history that rests along the banks of the Rio Chagres. In a press conference in Panama Cityon February 24, 2011, the team announced the recovery of the cannons from a shallow reef damaged by treasure hunters, whose blasting and dredging had exposed the fragile iron cannons to possible damage and loss. This led to the decision to recover the cannons. The cannons were measured and photographed in 2008 and studied by Dr. Ruth Brown, formerly with the Royal Armouries in the UK and an internationally renowned early cannon expert. The size and shape of the cannons appear to be a close match with the characteristics of small iron cannon of the Seventeenth Century; a more definitive identification of the cannons will take place after they are treated and years of encrustation and corrosion are removed in the laboratory.

The team, drawn from the ranks of Texas State University, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Waitt Institute, National Geographic, and the Instituto Nacional de Cultura explained how the discovery provides the first tangible archaeological link to the activities of Morgan in Panama, whose raid led to the destruction ofPanama City. Amazingly, archaeologists have yet to find any direct evidence of Morgan's men at the ruins of Panama Viejo, the city destroyed during Morgan's raid, and have only uncovered one faint trace of the fire that devastated the old city in 1671.

According to Dr. Tomas Mendizabal, Panamanian archaeologist and part of the expedition, "The clearest evidence is the traces of fire found on the stairs of the Cabildo structure at the side of the ruins of the Cathedral tower, which represents the level of destruction and abandonment of the building and, presumably the whole population. However, conflicting versions exist regarding who and how the fire was started."

Prior to plundering and burning the original site of Panama City in 1671, Morgan sent an advance party of 470 men in three ships with the task of storming the Spanish fort on the cliff overlooking the entrance to the Chagres River, the Castillo de San Lorenzo el Real de Chagres. Five days after the capture, Morgan in his flagship Satisfaction and the rest of his privateer fleet arrived at the fort to find the British flag flying. The cheers from those on the cliff and those on board the ships soon turned to horror as Satisfaction ran head on into Lajas Reef, which lay in the path of the river covered by a mere few feet of water. Three to four more ships followed the Morgan onto the reef. The ships were shattered and none was recovered. Morgan and his men paddled upriver and walked overland and finally sacked Panama City, returning to the Caribbean from the same route, abandoning the shipwrecks in their wake.
Coordinated by the Waitt Institute and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INAC), the results from the first-ever archaeological survey of the submerged cultural resources at the mouth of the Chagres River in 2008 yielded a vast array of archaeological artifacts from more than 500 years of maritime activity at the mouth of the river, including the cannons. The team returned in 2010 to recover the cannons from the reef under permit from INAC. The cannons will now be treated at the conservation facilities of the Patronato Panama Viejo to reverse centuries of salt water intrusion and chemical changes that if left untreated will result in their disintegration. "For the Patronato Panama Viejo it is very important to be the final depository of the six recovered cannons from the mouth of the Chagres," said the office of the Patronato Panama Viejo. "The inclusion of these cannons in our exhibits is of great importance and will greatly enrich our hall on piracy." The Patronato Panama Viejo has more than 15 years of experience in conservation at its laboratory facilities, the only one in the country, specializing in the treatment and preservation of metals. During the conservation process, one of the cannons will be exhibited in order to educate visitors on the conservation process as well as the rich history of the country of Panama.

Mr. Frederick Hanselmann, Research Faculty and Chief Underwater Archaeologist with the River Systems Institute and Center for Archaeological Studies at Texas State University said, "Very little is known archaeologically about English privateers, especially in regards to their activity in Panama. This represents a unique opportunity to fill in a gap in our knowledge of some very exciting and controversial human activity of that time period."

"The Rio Chagres was in many ways the original Panama Canal," notes Dr. James Delgado, past president of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and now the Director of Maritime Heritage for the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "For five centuries, following in the wake of Panama's indigenous peoples, Spanish explorers, English freebooters, traders, gold seeking Yankees enroute to California, soldiers and citizens have used the river as a highway that nearly crosses the isthmus. As these cannons demonstrate, those centuries of human activity have left a tangible trace in the archaeological record which is an important part of Panama's cultural patrimony as being of international significance and interest."

Dr. Dominique Rissolo, Executive Director of the Waitt Institute, which supported the project, noted, "Panama's maritime heritage is among the richest and most fascinating in all of the Americas, yet it has long been threatened by 'modern-day Morgans' in search of sunken treasures and trinkets. Our team is privileged to be collaborating with inspired and talented Panamanian leaders and scholars who share our desire to study and conserve the nation's submerged past and to accelerate the pace of discovery and protection. This is an exciting time for archaeology in Panama and we are very fortunate to be a part of it."

Mr. Hanselmann continued by noting that "Archaeology is a very popular and romantic topic. From the professional to the avocational level, we are all fascinated with what we learn about our collective past. This project aims to also make its discoveries accessible to the public through a variety of venues in the future, which will also hopefully provide an impetus for economic development through cultural heritage tourism. For now we are concentrating on continued survey for the actual remains of the vessels to better inform efforts in research, management, and preservation, in addition to the conservation of the cannons that we have recovered."

The Rio Chagres Maritime Cultural Landscape Study

The Lost Ships of Henry Morgan Project is but one aspect of the overall Rio Chagres Maritime Cultural Landscape Study, which seeks to answer questions about the historical maritime activity at the river, both on land and underwater. Christopher Columbus was the first European to set eyes on the Chagres River on his fourth voyage in 1502. The Spanish Crown soon after fortified the cliff overlooking the surrounding waters and the river became the main source for transporting goods and people to and from Panama City, Spain's main port in the Pacific, with connections to Spanish possessions in South America, Mexico, and the Philippines. Following the decline of the Spanish empire in the late 18th century, it became a backwater port and a point for smuggling and illicit trade. The Chagres River again saw a flurry of activity with the advent of the California Gold Rush in 1848, as it became port-of-call for gold seekers bound for California. The construction of the Panama Railroad in Colon gradually shifted traffic to the port of Colon and by 1855, Chagres was again a backwater. The Canal Zone government commandeered and fortified the Chagres River in 1915, but by the time of World War I it was abandoned again. The site of Chagres and the river mouth was then occupied by the US Army, as an active and occasionally fortified military reservation until 1999. Following US withdrawal in 1999, the area and the waters around it became a protected area, with the fortification Castillo de San Lorenzo el Real de Chagres becoming a United Nations World Heritage Site.

The research team plans to continue the project by conducting more detailed survey and test excavation in the project area in 2011, as well as efforts to preserve the San Lorenzo fortifications through digital scanning. Additionally, all data gathered during the survey will be used to provide a basis for a management framework and to outline future preservation efforts for these and other resources. Another important aspect of this project is the focus on collaboration between US and Panamanian researchers. The team focuses on incorporating archaeological training for Panamanian and US students, as well as other Latin American archaeologists at both the professional and student levels.